Genetics and Plant Breeding
 

Dr.M.S. Punia

Head of the Department

9466756122

Phone No

Mailing Address

-

Phone No : 9466756122
Email Id : puniams@yahoo.com

Sections
Forages Medicinal, Aromatic and Under-utilized Plants
Wheat and Barley Cotton
Bajra Oil Seeds
Pulses Section

Last Updated :- 11-01-2017 03:01:59
  • To impart theoretical knowledge of plant breeding to the students through course work, demonstrations, practical exercise and seminars.
  • To guide PG research work, demonstrations, practical exercise and seminars.
  • Highly trained faculty with expertise in various facets of crop improvement trained in India and abroad. Congenial atmosphere for teaching and research.
  • Best inter-personal and teacher-taught relations.
  • 68 M.Sc. and 32 PhD students have completed their degree since 1999. In last three years about 30 students have cleared NET Exam. Two thesis were awarded Jwahar Lal Nehru Award in the years 1995 and 2002. Students have also received Ram Dhan Singh Gold Medal (almost each year since institution of award) , Rajenderpal Singh Gold Medal, Ms. Manju Utreja Gold Medal and V.D. Kashyap Gold Medal. PG students have been receiving ICAR, CSIR (JRF and SRF), ICRISAT and Bhabha Atomic Scholarships. The Teaching Faculty have received outstanding teaching awards at National and departmental levels.
  • The faculty of the teaching section has contributed immensely in all organizational events at the departmental levels and most of the activities at university level in the past.
  • Excellent lab facilities exist for UG and PG practicals and PG Research in the area of Molecular markers, Tissue culture, Resistance Breeding and Cytogenetics.
  • Field facilities are available for PG research.
  • Germplasm evaluation for tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses using morphophysiological, biochemical, invitro selection approaches and DNA markers. Breeding for low input genotypes through harnessing plant-microbe interactions. Evaluation of crop genotypes for better endues quality.
  • Evaluation of genotypes for photothermo response.
Good audio-visual facilities for teaching and seminars for Overhead Projections, PowerPoint presentations, slide projections and Epidiascope exist in the section.
COURSE CATALOGUE - DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS & PLANT BREEDING
GP 501 PRINCIPLES OF GENETICS SEM-I

UNIT-I

Beginning of genetics; Early concepts of Inheritance; Mendel's laws; Discussion on Mendel’s paper; Chromosomal theory of inheritance; Multiple alleles; Gene interactions; Sex determination, differentiation and sex-linkage; Sex-influenced and sex limited traits; Linkage-detection, estimation; Recombination and genetic mapping in eukaryotes; Somatic cell genetics; Extra chromosomal inheritance; Male sterility and incompatibility.

UNIT-II

Structural and numerical changes in chromosomes; Nature, structure and replication of the genetic material; Recombination in bacteria, fungi, viruses; Tetrad analysis; Organization of DNA in chromosomes, Genetic code; Protein biosynthesis; Genetic fine structure analysis; Allelic complementation, Split genes; Transposable genetic elements; Overlapping genes, Pseudogenes, Oncogenes; Gene families and clusters.

UNIT-III

Regulation of gene activity in prokaryotes; Molecular mechanisms of mutation, repair and suppression; Bacterial plasmids, insertion (IS) and transposable (Tn) elements; Molecular chaperones and gene expression; Gene regulation in eukaryotes; RNA editing; Nucleic acid hybridization and immunochemical detection; DNA sequencing; DNA restriction and modification; Gene isolation, synthesis and cloning; genomic and cDNA libraries; PCR based cloning, positional cloning; Anti-sense RNA and ribozymes; MicroRNAs (miRNAs).

UNIT-IV

Genomics and proteomics; Functional and pharmacogenomics; Metagenomics; Methods of studying polymorphism at biochemical and DNA level; Transgenic bacteria and bioethics; Gene silencing; Genetics of mitochondria and chloroplasts.

UNIT-V

Population- Mendelian population, random mating population; Frequencies of genes and genotypes- causes of change; Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium; Concepts of Eugenics, Epigenetics; Genetic disorders and Behavioural genetics; Overview of recent discoveries in the field of genetics.

GP 502 PRINCIPLES OF PLANT BREEDING SEM-I

UNIT-I

History of Plant Breeding (Pre and post Mendelian era), Objectives of plant breeding, Characteristics improved by plant breeding. Patterns of Evolution in Crop Plants- Centres of Origin-biodiversity and its significance

UNIT-II

Genetic basis of breeding self- and cross - pollinated crops including mating systems and response to selection - nature of variability, components of variation, heritability and genetic advance, genotype-environment interaction, general and specific combining ability, types of gene actions and implications in plant breeding; plant introduction and role of plant genetic resources in plant breeding.

UNIT-III

Pure line theory; pure line selection and mass selection methods, line breeding, pedigree, bulk, backcross, single seed descent and multiline method; population breeding in self-pollinated crops (diallel selective mating approach).

UNIT-IV

Breeding methods in cross pollinated crops, population breeding-mass selection and ear-to-row methods; S1 and S2 progeny testing, progeny selection schemes, recurrent selection schemes for intra and inter-population improvement and development of synthetics and composites; hybrid breeding - genetical and physiological basis of heterosis and inbreeding, production of inbreds, breeding approaches for improvement of inbreds, predicting hybrid performance; seed production of hybrid and their parent varieties/inbreds.

UNIT-V

Breeding methods in asexually/clonally propagated crops, clonal selection apomixes, clonal selection.

UNIT-VI

Self-incompatibility and male sterility in crop plants and their commercial exploitation; concept of plant ideotype and its role in crop improvement; transgressive breeding.

UNIT-VII

Special breeding techniques- Mutation breeding, Breeding for abiotic and biotic stresses

UNIT-VIII

Cultivar development- testing, release and notification, maintenance breeding, Participatory Plant Breeding, Plant breeders’ rights and regulations for plant variety protection and farmers rights.

GP 503 PRINCIPLES OF CYTOGENETICS SEM-II

UNIT-I

Architecture of chromosome in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; Chromonemata, chromosome matrix, chromomeres, centromere, secondary constriction and telomere Artificial chromosome construction and its uses; Special types of chromosomes

UNIT-II

Chromosomal theory of inheritance – Cell Cycle and cell division – mitosis and meiosis, Differences , significance and deviations – Synapsis, structure and function of synaptonemal complex and spindle apparatus, anaphase movement of chromosomes and crossing over-mechanisms and theories of crossing over- recombination models, cytological basis, - Variation in chromosome structure: evolutionary significance Introduction to techniques for karyotyping; Chromosome banding and painting - in situ hybridization and various applications

UNIT-III

Structural and Numerical variations of chromosomes and their implications Symbols and terminologies for chromosome numbers - euploidy - haploids, diploids and polyploids ; Utilization of aneuploids in gene location - Variation in chromosome behaviour - somatic segregation and chimeras – endomitosis and somatic reduction ; Evolutionary significance of chromosomal aberrations - balanced lethals and chromosome complexes

UNIT-IV

Inter-varietal chromosome substitutions, Polyploidy and role of polyploids in crop breeding; Evolutionary advantages of autopolyploids vs allopolyploids –- Role of aneuploids in basic and applied aspects of crop breeding; their maintenance and utilization in gene mapping and gene blocks transfer – Alien addition and substitution lines – creation and utilization; Apomixis: Evolutionary and genetics problems in crops with apomixes

UNIT-V

Reversion of autopolyploids to diploids; genome mapping in polyploids Interspecific hybridization and allopolyploids; Synthesis of new crops (wheat, triticale and brassica) – Hybrids between species with same chromosome number, alien translocations - Hybrids between species with different chromosome number; Gene transfer using amphidiploids- Bridge species

UNIT-VI

Fertilization barriers in crop plants at pre-and postfertilization levels- In vitro techniques to overcome the fertilization barriers in crops, Chromosome manipulations in wide hybridization ; case studies – Production and use of haploids, dihaploids and doubled haploids in genetics and breeding.

GP 504 2+1 POPULATION GENETICS SEM-I

UNIT-I

Concepts of population, properties of population; Role of population genetics; Mendelian population: Genetic constitution of a population through time, space, age structure etc.; Probability rules in relation to Mendelian inheritance; Mating systems: Random mating population; Frequencies of genes and genotypes: causes of change (population size, differences in fertility and viability), migration and mutation; Natural, idealized and non-idealized population.

 

UNIT-II

Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium: Proof and applications of the Hardy-Weinberg law; Hardy-Weinberg law: Single locus with two allele and multiple alleles; Sex linked genes; Forces affecting gene frequencies and equilibrium; Mean of random mating population: dominance, no-dominance and codominance cases; Wahlund’s principle; Snyder’s ratio; Gene substitution and average effects; Breeding value: effect of random mating in succeeding generations.

UNIT-III

Fisher’s theorem of natural selection, Migration, Mutation, Recurrent and non recurrent selection; Balance between selection and mutation, Selection favouring heterozygotes, Over dominance for fitness; Genetic equilibrium for multiple loci; Linkage disequilibrium; Polygenes and continuous variation, components of variation; Covariances; Non- random mating, selfing, back crossing; Inbreeding coefficient, panmictic index, sib mating; Assortative mating and disassortative mating; Pedigree populations and close inbreeding.

UNIT-IV

Correlation between relatives and estimation of F; Effect of inbreeding and sibling in cross pollinated crops; Theory of path and regression in applied population genetics; Genetic drift; Genetic slippage, Co-adapted gene complexes; Homoeostasis, adaptive organization of gene pools; Polymorphism, balanced and non-balanced polymorphism, heterozygous advantage; Survival of recessive and deleterious alleles in populations; Founders principle; Equilibrium in autopolyploidy; Generalized zygotic distribution and meiotic drive; Electrophoretic variants of proteins and molecular approach in the study of population.

GP 505 2+1 PRINCIPLES OFQUANTITATIVE GENETICS SEM-II

UNIT-I

Mendelian traits vs polygenic traits - nature of quantitative traits and its inheritance - Multiple factor hypothesis - analysis of continuous variation - Variations associated with polygenic traits - phenotypic, genotypic and environmental - non-allelic interactions- Nature of gene action- additive, dominance, epistatic and linkage effects

UNIT-II

Principles of Anaylis of Variance (ANOVA) - Expected Variance Components, Random and fixed models, MANOVA, Biplot Analysis, Comparison of Means and variances for significance

UNIT-III

Designs for plant breeding experiments – principles and applications - Genetic diversity analysis – metroglyph, cluster and D2 analyses - Association analysis phenotypic and genotypic correlations, Path analysis and Parent - progeny regression analysis - Discriminant function and principal component analyses - selection indices selection of parents, Simultaneous selection models- Concepts of selection - heritability and genetic advance
UNIT-IV: Generation mean analysis, mating designs- Diallel, Partial Diallel, Line x tester analysis, NCDs and TTC., Concepts of combining abilityand gene action–- Analysis of genotype x environment interaction - adaptability and stability, Models for GxE analysis and stability parameters- AMMI analysis – principle and interpretation

UNIT-V

QTL mapping; Strategies for QTL mapping - desired populations for QTL mapping - statistical methods in QTL mapping - QTL mapping in Genetic analysis, Marker Aided Selection (MAS) - Approaches to apply MAS in Plant breeding - selection based on marker - simultaneous selection based on marker and phenotype - Factors influencing MAS

GP 506 2+1 MUTAGENESIS AND MUTATION BREEDING SEM-I

UNIT-I

Mutation and its history - Nature and classification of mutations: spontaneous and induced mutations, micro and macro mutations, pre and post adaptive mutations Detection of mutations in lower and higher organisms – paramutations

UNIT-II

Mutagenic agents: physical -- Radiation types and sources: Ionising and nonionizing radiationsviz., X rays, γ rays, ,  and β particles, protons, neutrons and UV rays Radiobiology: mechanism of action of various radiations (, photoelectric absorption, Compton scattering and pair production) and their biological effects –RBE and LET relationships

UNIT-III

Effect of mutations on DNA - Repair mechanisms operating at DNA, chromosome, cell and organism level to counteract the mutation effects - Dosimetry Objects and methods of treatment - Factors influencing mutation: dose rate, acute vs chronic irradiation, recurrent irradiation, enhancement of thermal neutron effects Radiation sensitivity and modifying factors: external and internal sources- oxygen, water content, temperature and nuclear volume

UNIT-IV

Chemical mutagens- Classification - base analogues, antibiotics, alkylating agents, acridine dyes and other mutagens: their properties and mode of action - Dose determination and factors influencing chemical mutagenesis - Treatment methods using physical and chemical mutagens - combination treatments ; Other causes of mutation: direct and indirect action, comparative evaluation of physical and chemical mutagens.

UNIT-V

Observing mutagen effects in M1 generation: plant injury, lethality, sterility, chimeras etc., - Observing mutagen effects in M2 generation - Estimation of mutagenic efficiency and effectiveness – spectrum of chlorophyll and viable mutations -– Mutations in traits with continuous variation.
UNIT-VI: Factors influencing the mutant spectrum: genotype, type of mutagen and dose, pleiotropy and linkage etc. - Individual plant based mutation analysis and working out effectiveness and efficiency in M3 generation - Comparative evaluation of physical and chemical mutagens for creation of variability in a same species – case studies.

UNIT-VII

Use of mutagens in creating oligogenic and polygenic variations – case studies - In vitro mutagenesis – callus and pollen irradiation - - Handling of segregating genrations and selection procedures- Validation of mutants- Mutation breeding for various traits (disease resistance, insect resistance, quality improvement,etc) in different crops -–, –Procedures for micro-mutations breeding/polygenic mutations, Achievements of mutation breeding: varieties released across the world-Problems associated with mutation breeding.

UNIT-VIII

Use of mutagens in genomics, allele mining, TILLING.

GP 507 2+1 HETEROSIS BREEDING SEM-II

UNIT-I

Historical aspect of heterosis - Nomenclature and definitions of heterosis Heterosis in natural population and bred population; Evolutionary aspects - Genetic consequences of selfing and crossing in self-and cross-pollinated and asexually propagated crops crops.

UNIT-II

Pre Mendelian and Post Mendelian ideas - Genetic theories of heterosis – Physiological, Biochemical and molecular factors underlining heterosis; theories and their estimation;- Evolutionary concepts of heterosis.

UNIT-III

Prediction of heterosis from various crosses- Inbreeding depression, frequency of inbreeding and residual heterosis in F2 and segregating populations, importance of inbreeding in exploitation of heterosis – case studies. - Relationship between genetic distance and expression of heterosis – case studies; Divergence and Genetic Distance analyses-morphological and molecular genetic distance in predicting heterosis, Development of heterotic pools in germplasm/genetic stocks and inbreds, their improvement for increasing heterosis.

UNIT-IV

Types of male sterility and use in heterosis breeding, Maintenance, transfer and restoration of different types of male sterility. Use of self-incompatibility in development of hybrids. Hybrid seed production system: 3-line, 2-line and 1-line system, Development of inbreds and parental lines- A, B and R lines – functional male sterility, Commercial exploitation of heterosis- maintenance breeding of parental lines in hybrids.

UNIT-V

Fixation of heterosis in self, cross and often cross pollinated crops, asexually/clonally propagated crops - Male sterile line creation and diversification in self pollinated, cross pollinated and asexually propagated crops – problems and prospects, Apomixis in fixing heterosis-concept of single line hybrid.<

UNIT-VI

Organellar heterosis and complementation - Creation of male sterility through genetic engineering and itsexploitation in heterosis.

UNIT-VII

Heterosis breeding in wheat, rice, cotton, maize, pearl millet, sorghum and oilseed crops.

GP 508 2+0 GENE REGULATION AND EXPRESSION SEM-I

UNIT-I

Introduction: Gene regulation; Process and mechanisms in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; Levels of gene controls.

UNIT-II

Coordinated genetic regulation-examples; Anthocyanin and gene families in maize; Genetic and molecular basis depending on tissue specificity.

UNIT-III

Regeneration in plants and animals; Chromatin and nuclear proteins, chromosomal differentiation, nucleo-cytoplasmic interactions; long lived mRNA; differentiation inAcetabularia; morphogenesis in viruses and bacteria.

UNIT-IV

Gene expression; Transposons in plant gene expression, cloning, transposon tagging; Light regulated gene expression: Model systems in Arabidopsis and maize; Paramutations and imprinting of genes and genomes.

UNIT-V

Repeated DNA sequences; hormone induced cellular functions in plants and animals; double fertilization; embryo and endosperm development; Tissue differentiation and pattern formation; homeotic genes; Seed storage protein synthesis

UNIT-VI

Transgene expression and gene silencing mechanisms; Regulatory genes horizontal and vertical homology; Transformation: Regulatory genes as visible markers; Reporter systems to study gene expression; Combinatorial gene control.

UNIT-VII

Eukaryotic tranblockedional control; Translational and post-translational regulation; Signal transduction; Stress-induced gene expression; Gene traps and enhancer traps.

GP 509 3+0 CELL BIOLOGY AND MOLECULAR GENETICS SEM-II

UNIT-I

History and scope: Theory of cell differentiation - Genome constancy - indirect and direct evidences for differential gene expressions

UNIT-II

Genome control in embryogenesis; Maternal control in early development, Gene amplification; Localization and molecular mechanisms of morphogenetic determinants in egg cytoplasms;Determination, transdetermination.

UNIT-III

Ultrastructure of the cell; Differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, macromolecules; Structure and function of cell wall, nuclear membrane and plasma membrane; Cellular Organelles, nucleus, plastids: chloro/chromoplast, mitochondria endoplasmic reticulum, golgi complex, lysosomes, peroxisomes.

UNIT-IV

Bioenergetics; Ultrastructure and function of mitochondria and biological membranes; Chloroplast and other photosynthetic organelles; Interphase nucleus: Structure and chemical composition; Cell division and physiology of cell division.

UNIT-V

Transposable elements; Mechanisms of recombination in prokaryote; DNA organization in eukaryotic chromosomes; DNA content variation, types of DNA sequences: unique and repetitive sequences; Organelle genomes; Gene amplification and its significance; Proteomics and protein-protein interaction; Signal transduction; Genes in development; Cancer and cell aging.

GP 510 3+1 BIOTECHNOLOGY FOR CROP IMPROVEMENT SEM-I

UNIT-I

Biotechnology and its relevance in agriculture, Definitions, Terminologies and scope in plant breeding

UNIT-II

Tissue culture- History, callus, suspension cultures, cloning, Regeneration; Somatic embryogenesis; Anther culture; somatic hybridization techniques; Meristem, ovary and embryo culture; cryopreservation

UNIT-III

Genotyping; sequencing techniques; Biochemical and Molecular markers: morphological, biochemical and DNA-based markers (RFLP, RAPD, AFLP, SSR, SNPs, ESTs etc.), mapping populations (F2s, back crosses, RILs, NILs and DH). UNIT-IV: Molecular mapping and tagging of agronomically important traits.Statistical tools in marker analysis, Robotics, Gene pyramiding.

UNIT-V

Marker assisted selection and molecular breeding, Genomics and genoinformatics for crop improvement, Integrating functional genomics information on agronomically/economically important traits in plant breeding

UNIT-VI

Recombinant DNA technology, transgenes, method of gene transformations, selectable markers and clean transformation techniques, vector-mediated gene transfer, physical methods of gene transfer. Production of transgenic plants in various field crops: cotton, wheat, maize, rice, soybean, oilseeds, sugarcane etc. Commercial releases.

UNIT-VII

Biotechnology applications in male sterility/hybrid breeding, molecular farming

UNIT-VIII

MOs related issues (risk and regulations). GMO; International regulations, Biosafety issues of GMOs, Regulatory procedures in major countries including India, ethical, legal and social issues; Intellectual property rights

UNIT-IX

Bioinformatics & Bioinformatics tools

UNIT X

Nanotechnology and its applications in crop improvement programmes.

GP 511 3+1 BREEDING FOR BIOTIC, ABIOTIC STRESS RESISTANCE SEM-II

UNIT-I

Importance of plant breeding with special reference to biotic and abiotic stress resistance, Classification of biotic stresses – major pests and diseases of economically important crops - Concepts in insect and pathogen resistance ; analysis and inheritance of resistance variation. Host defence responses to pathogen invasions-biochemical and molecular mechanisms; Acquired and induced immunity and systemic acquired resistance (SAR); Host-pathogen interaction, gene-for-gene hypothesis, molecular evidence for its operation and exceptions; Concept of signal transduction and other host-defense mechanisms against viruses and bacteria.

UNIT-II

Types and genetic mechanisms of resistance to biotic stresses –horizontal and vertical resistance in crop plants. Quantitative resistance/Adult plant resistance and Slow rusting resistance - Classical and; molecular breeding methods - Measuring plant resistance using plant fitness, behavioural, physiological and insect gain studies.

UNIT-III

Phenotypic screening methods for major pests and diseases; recording of observations; correlating the observations using marker data - Gene pyramiding methods and their implications.

UNIT-IV

Classification of abiotic stresses - Stress inducing factors –moisture stress/drought and water logging & submergence; acidity, salinity/alkalinity/sodicity; high/low temperature, wind, etc. Stress due to soil factors and mineral toxicity; Physiological and Phenological responses; Emphasis of abiotic stresses in developing breeding methodologies.

UNIT-V

Genetics of abiotic stress resistance, Genes and genomics in breeding cultivars suitable to low water regimes and water logging & submergence, high and low/freezing temperatures. Utilizing MAS procedures for identifying resistant types in important crops like rice, sorghum, wheat, cotton etc. Breeding for resistance to stresses caused by toxicity, deficiency and pollutants/contaminants in soil, water and environment

UNIT-VI

Exploitation of wild relatives as a source of resistance to biotic and abiotic factors in major field crops - Transgenics in management of biotic and abiotic stresses, use of toxins, protease inhibitors, lectins, chitenases and Bt for diseases and insect pest management- achievements

GP 512 3+1 BREEDING CEREALS, FORAGESAND SUGARCANE SEM-I

UNIT-I

Rice: evolution and distribution of species and forms - wild relatives and germplasm - Rice: genetics – cytogenetics and genome relationship - Breeding objectives: yield, quality characters, biotic and abiotic stress resistance etc. – Hybrid rice breeding: potentials and outcome - Aerobic rice; its implications and drought resistance breeding.

UNIT-II

Wheat: evolution and distribution of species and forms - wild relatives and germplasm – cytogenetics and genome relationship - breeding objectives: yield, quality characters, biotic and abiotic stress resistance, exploitation of heterosis etc - Sorghum: evolution and distribution of species and forms - wild relatives and germplasm cytogenetics and genome relationship - breeding objectives: yield, quality characters, biotic and abiotic stress resistance etc - Pearl millet: evolution and distribution of species and forms- wild relatives and germplasm - cytogenetics and genome relationship breeding objectives: yield, quality characters, biotic and abiotic stress resistance etc.

UNIT-III

Maize: evolution and distribution of species and forms - wild relatives and germplasm - cytogenetics and genome relationship - breeding objectives: yield, quality characters, biotic and abiotic stress resistance etc - Maize: QPM and Bt maize – strategies and implications- Heterosis breeding attempts taken in Sorghum, Pearl Millet and Maize Minor millets: evolution and distribution of species and forms - wild relatives and germplasm - cytogenetics and genome relationship - Minor millets: breeding objectives: yield, quality characters, biotic and abiotic stress resistance etc - Sugarcane: evolution and distribution of species and forms- wild relatives and germplasm.

UNIT-IV

Sugarcane: cytogenetics and genome relationship - Sugarcane: breeding objectives: yield, quality characters, biotic and abiotic stress resistance etc - Forage grasses: evolution and distribution of species and forms - Forage grasses: Wild relatives and germplasm - cytogenetics and genome relationship - Forage grasses: breeding objectives: yield, quality characters and palatability studies - Forage grasses: biotic and abiotic stress resistance etc., synthetics, composites and apomixes.

UNIT-V

Forage legumes: evolution and distribution of species and forms - Forage legumes : wild relatives and germplasm - cytogenetics and genome relationship - Forage legumes: breeding objectives: yield, quality characters, biotic and abiotic stress resistance etc - Tree fodders: evolution and distribution of species and forms - wild relatives and germplasm - cytogenetics and genome relationship - Tree fodders: breeding objectives: yield, quality characters, biotic and abiotic stress resistance etc, palatability studies.

UNIT-VI

Distinguishing features of popular released varieties in Rice and Sorghum Wheat, Pearl millet, Maize and other millets - Sugarcane, forage grasses and legumes and their application to DUS testing - Maintenance of seed purity - Nucleus and Breeder Seed Production.

GP 513 3+1 BREEDING LEGUMES, OILSEEDS AND FIBRE CROPS SEM-II

UNIT-I

Pigeonpea: evolution and distribution of species and forms - wild relatives and germplasm - genetics - cytogenetics and genome relationship; morphological and molecular deblockedors used for differentiating the accessions - breeding objectives: yield, quality characters, biotic and abiotic stress etc - Hybrid technology; maintenance of male sterile, fertile and restorer lines, progress made at ICRISAT and other Institutes

UNIT-II

Chickpea: Evolution and distribution of species and forms - wild relatives and germplasm - cytogenetics and genome relationship, breeding objectives: yield, quality characters, biotic and abiotic stress etc. Protein quality improvement – conventional and modern plant breeding approaches, progress made - Breeding for anti nutritional factors

UNIT-III

Other pulses: Greengram, blackgram, fieldpea, lentil,, lathyrus, cowpea, lablab, mothbean: –evolution, cytogenetics and genome relationship, learning the deblockedors  breeding objectives: yield, quality characters, biotic and abiotic stress etc - - interspecific crosses attempted and its implications, reasons for failure, ways of overcoming them

UNIT-IV

Groundnut: evolution and distribution of species and forms - Groundnut : wild relatives and germplasm - cytogenetics and genome relationship; pod and kernel characters - Groundnut: breeding objectives: yield, quality characters, biotic and abiotic stressetc

UNIT-V

Rapeseed and Mustard: breeding objectives, utilization of wild relatives for yield and quality improvement, biotic and abiotic stress etc. - Oil quality – characteristics in different oils -evolution and distribution of species and forms - wild relatives and germplasm- genetics- cytogenetics and genome relationship

UNIT-VI

Soybean: Breeding objectives, utilization of wild relatives for yield and quality improvement, biotic and abiotic stress etc. - Oil quality – characteristics - evolution and distribution of species and forms - wild relatives and germplasm - genetics - cytogenetics and genome relationship

UNIT-VII

Other oilseed crops: Sunflower,sesame, safflower, niger, : evolution and distribution of species and forms - wild relatives and germplasm - cytogenetics and genome relationship - breeding objectives: yield, quality characters, biotic and abiotic stress - Sunflower: evolution and distribution of species and forms - wild relatives and germplasm - cytogenetics and genome relationship, hybrid sunflower, constraints and achievements

UNIT-VIII

Castor: evolution and distribution of species and forms - wild relatives and germplasm - cytogenetics and genome relationship, breeding objectives: yield, quality characters, biotic and abiotic stress etc - Hybrid breeding in castor – opportunities, constraints and achievements

UNIT-IX

Cotton: evolution of cotton, breeding objectives: yield, quality characters, biotic and abiotic stress etc– Cotton: Development and maintenance of male sterile lines – Hybrid development and seed production – Scenario of Bt cottons, evaluation procedures for Bt cotton - Jute: evolution and distribution of species and forms - wild relatives and germplasm – cytogenetics and genome relationship-Jute: breeding objectives: yield, quality characters, biotic and abiotic stress etc - Mesta and minor fibre crops: evolution and distribution of species and forms – wild relatives and germplasm - cytogenetics and genome relationship –Mesta and minor fibre crops: breeding objectives: yield, quality characters, biotic and abiotic stress etc.

UNIT X

Distinguishing features of the released varieties in pulses, oilseeds and cotton ; Maintenance of seed purity and seed production.

GP 514 2+1 BREEDING FOR QUALITY TRAITS SEM-I

UNIT-I

Developmental biochemistry and genetics of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, aminoacids and anti-nutritional factors - Nutritional improvement - A human perspective - Breeding for grain quality parameters in rice and its analysis - Golden rice and aromatic rice – breeding strategies, achievements and application in Indian context Molecular basis of quality traits and their manipulation in rice - Post harvest manipulation for quality improvement

UNIT-II

Breeding for baking qualities in wheat; characters to be considered and breeding strategies - Molecular and cytogenetic manipulation for quality improvement in wheat Breeding for quality improvement in barley and oats

UNIT-III

Breeding for quality improvement in Sorghum and pearl millet; Quality protein maize – concept and breeding strategies – Breeding for quality improvement in forage crops- Genetic resource management for sustaining nutritive quality in crops.

UNIT-IV

Breeding for quality in pulses - Breeding for quality in groundnut, sesame, sunflower and minor oilseeds – Molecular basis of fat formation and manipulation to achieve more PUFA in oil crops; Genetic manipulation for quality improvement in cotton

UNIT-V

Genetic engineering protocols for quality improvement – Achievements made Value addition in crops; classification and importance - Nutritional genomics and Second generation transgenics.

GP 515 2+1 MAINTENANCE BREEDING, CONCEPTS OF VARIETY RELEASE AND SEED PRODUCTION SEM-II

UNIT-I

Variety Development and Maintenance - Define variety, cultivar,extant variety, essentially derived variety, independently derived variety, reference variety, farmers’ variety, hybrid,and population; Variety testing, release and notification system in India and abroad

UNIT-II

DUS testing- DUS Deblockedors for major crops - genetic purity concept and maintenance breeding.

UNIT-III

Factors responsible for deterioration of varieties - safeguards during seed production; maintenance of varieties in self and cross-pollination crops- isolation distance; methods of nucleus and breeder seed production; principles of seed production

UNIT-IV

Generation system of seed multiplication -nucleus, breeders, foundation, certified, - Quality seed production technology of self and cross-pollinated crop varieties viz. cereals & millets (wheat, barley, paddy, pearlmillet, sorghum, maize and ragi etc.); pulses (greengram, blackgram, cowpea, pigeonpea, chickpea, fieldpea, lentil); oilseeds (groundnut, soybean, sesame, castor, sunflower, safflower, linseed, rapeseed and mustard); fibres (cotton, jute) and forages (guar, forage sorghum, teosinte, oats, berseem, lucerne).; Seed certification procedures; Seed laws and plant variety protection regulations in India and international systems.

GP 516/SST516 2+1 GERMPLASM COLLECTION, EXCHANGE AND QUARANTINE SEM-I

UNIT-I

History and importance of germplasm exploration; distribution and extent of prevalent genetic diversity; phyto-geographical regions/ecological zones and associated diversity; mapping eco-geographic distribution of diversity, threatened habitats, use of flora

UNIT-II

Concept of population and gene pool; variations in population and their classification; gene frequencies in populations, rare and common alleles; gene pool sampling in self and cross pollinated and vegetatively propagated species; non-selective, random and selective sampling strategies; strategies and logistics of plant exploration and collection; coarse and fine grid surveys; practical problems in plant exploration; use of in vitromethods in germplasm collection.

UNIT-III

Ethnobotanical aspects of PGR; crop botany, farming systems, collecting wild relatives of crop plants; collection and preservation of specimens; importance and use of herbaria and preparation of herbarium specimens.

UNIT-IV

Post-exploration handling of germplasm collections; present status and future strategies in collection of major crops of Indian origin such as rice, maize, sorghum, sesame, Brassica, okra, eggplant, cotton, mango etc; approaches for collection including indigenous knowledge.

UNIT-V

History, principles, objectives and importance of plant introduction; prerequisites, conventions, national and international legislations and policies on germplasm collection and exchange; documentation and information management. Plant quarantine: introduction, history, principles, objectives and relevance; Regulations and plant quarantine set up in India; pest risk analysis, pest and pathogen information database; quarantine in relation to integrated pest management; economic significance of seed-borne pests (insects, mites, non-insect pests, nematodes, fungi, bacteria, viruses, phytoplasma etc.)

UNIT-VI

Detection and identification of pests including use of recent techniques like ELISA, PCR etc., symptoms of pest damage, salvaging techniques for infested/infected germplasm, post-entry quarantine operation, seed treatment and other prophylactic treatments and facilities; domestic quarantine; seed certification; international linkages in plant quarantine; weaknesses and future thrust.

UNIT-VII

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) or genetically engineered plants (GEPs), Concepts of biosafety, risk analysis and consequences of spread of GE crops on the environment, Treaties and multilateral agreements governing trans-boundary movement of GEPs or GMOs, Indian regulatory system for biosafety with GMOs.

GP 517 2+1 DATABASE MANAGEMENT, EVALUATION ANDUTILIZATION OF PGR SEM-II

UNIT-I

Statistical techniques in management of germplasm, core identification, estimation of sample size during plant explorations, impact of sampling on population structure; sequential sampling for viability estimation, introduction of binomial, normal and negative cumulative normal, use of Probit scales, viability equations and nomograms, estimation of sample size for storage and viability testing.

UNIT-II

Germplasm documentation; basics of computer and operating systems, database management system, use of statistical softwares, pictorial and graphical representation of data; introduction to communication network

UNIT-III

Germplasm management system: global scenario, genetic variation in crop plants and management of germplasm collection, limitations in use of germplasm collections; necessity of germplasm evaluation; predictive methods for identification of useful germplasm;characterization of germplasm and evaluation procedures including specific traits, Gene markers and their use in PGR management, germplasm enhancement, prebreeding and utilizing wild species in crop improvement.

UNIT-IV

Management and utilization of germplasm collections; concept of core collection, molecular markers and their use in characterization, evaluation and utilization of genetic resources; pre-breeding/ genetic enhancement, utilizing wild species for crop improvement; harmonizing agro-biodiversity and agricultural development crop diversification; participatory plant breeding.

GP 518/PSMAS505 2+1 BREEDING OF MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC CROPS SEM-II

UNIT-I

Plant bio-diversity, conservation of germplasm, IPR issues, Major objectives of breeding of Medicinal and Aromatic Crops, Scope for introduction; cytogenetic background of important Medicinal and Aromatic Crops; Scope for improvement of Medicinal and Aromatic Crops through selection, intra and interspecific hybridization, induced autotetraploidy, mutation breeding and biotechnological approaches.

UNIT-II

Breeding for yield and quality improvement in medicinal plants, Breeding for high herbage yield, essential oil and quality components, secondary metabolites in medicinal and aromatic crops; Genetics of active principles and assay techniques useful in evaluation of breeder’s material. Breeding problems in seed and vegetatively propagated medicinal and aromatic crops.

UNIT-III

Achievements and prospects in breeding of medicinal crops, viz. Cassia angustifolia, Catharanthus roseus, Gloriosa superba, Coleus forskohlii, Stevia, Withania somnifera,Papaver somniferum,Plantago ovata,Dioscoreasp.

UNIT-IV

Prospects in breeding of medicinal crops, viz. Chlorophytum sp, Rauvolfia serpentina,Aloe vera, Ocimum sp, Phyllanthus amarus,Solanumsp

UNIT-V

Prospects in breeding of aromatic crops viz., Geranium, vettiver, Lemon grass, Palmarosa, citronella, Rosemary, Patchouli, Eucalyptus, Artemisia and Mint.

GP 601 2+0 ADVANCED GENETICS SEM-I

UNIT-I

Gene regulation in prokaryotes- Lac operon; Gal operon; Arabinose operon, Tryp operon; Repressor versus attenuation; Regulation of lytic and lysogenic phages; Gene regulation in eukaryotes; Genetic control of antibody diversity.

UNIT-II

Regulatory units in yeast; Mechanisms of genetic recombination; Illegitimate and site specific recombination, flagellar antigen switching in Salmonella; mating type switching in S. cerevisiae, Polymorphism; Methods of studying polymorphism at biochemical and DNA level; Genetics of mitochondria and chloroplasts; Discussion on complex loci with reference to gene concept, Discussion on recent topics in the field of genetics.

GP 602 2+0 CELLULAR AND CHROMOSOMAL MANIPULATIONSFOR CROP BREEDING SEM-II

UNIT-I

Organization and structure of genome – Genome size – Organization of organellar genomes – Nuclear DNA organization – Nuclear and Cytoplasmic genome interactions and signal transduction, Tranblockedional and Translational changes, Inheritance and expression of organellar DNA; Variation in DNA content – C – value paradox – sequence complexity – Introns and Exons – Repetitive sequences – Role of repetitive sequence in crop evolution.

UNIT-II

Karyotyping – Chromosome banding and chromosome painting Tracking introgressions using FISH, GISH, loclalization and mapping of genes/genomic segments. – Distant hybridization - Role of polyploids in crop evolution and breeding - auto and allopolyploids.

UNIT-III

Applications of cytogenetical methods for crop improvement; location and mapping of genes on chromosomes: deficiency method; interchange-genetic consequence, identification of chromosomes involved and gene location; balanced lethal systems, their maintenance and utility; multiple interchanges-use in producing inbreds, transfer of geneslinked marker methods; Duplication - production and use; inversions and location of genes; B/A chromosome translocations and gene location

UNIT-IV

Trisomics- types, production, breeding behavior and location of genes, use of balanced tertiary trisomics in hybrid seed production; Monosomics-methods of production, breeding behavior and location of genes; Intervarietal substitutions-allelic and non-allelic interactgions, telocentric method of mapping

UNIT-V

Barriers to interspecific and intergeneric hybridization, Behaviour of interspecific and intergeneric crosses – Totipotency of cells – Morphogenesis: in vivo and in vitro – Meristem culture – anther and pollen culture – ovule, ovary, embryo and endosperm culture – protoplast isolation and culture – protoplast fusion, Different pathways ofin vitro morphogenesis– organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis –In vitro mutant/somaclone selection for biotic and abiotic stresses

GP 603 2+0 ADVANCED BIOMETRICAL AND QUANTITATIVE GENETICS SEM-I

UNIT-I

Basic principles of Biometrical Genetics - selection of parents - Advanced biometrical models for combining ability analysis -Simultaneous selection models; Use of Multiple regression analysis in selection of genotypes; Designs and Systems - Selection of stable genotypes

UNIT-II

Models in stability analysis - Pattern analysis - Additive Main Effect and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI) model and other related models - Principal Component Analysis model

UNIT-III

Additive and multiplicative model - Shifted multiplicative model - Analysis and selection of genotypes - Methods and steps to select the best model - Biplots and mapping genotypes

UNIT-IV

Genetic architecture of quantitative traits - conventional analyses to detect gene actions - Partitioning of phenotypic/genotypic variance - Construction of saturated linkage maps, concept of framework map development, QTL mapping; Strategies for QTL mapping - desired populations , - statistical methods , : Marker Assisted Selection (MAS) - Approaches to apply MAS in Plant breeding - selection based on marker - simultaneous selection based on marker and phenotype - Factors influencing MAS: heritability of the trait, proportion of genetic variance, linkage disequilibrium between markers and traits and selection methods.

GP 604 2+1 GENOMICS IN PLANT BREEDING SEM-II

UNIT-I

Introduction to the plant genome- Plant genomes and their molecular deblockedion -Thechloroplast and the mitochondrial genomes in plants- Genome size and complexity

UNIT-II

Establishment of plant genome mapping projects - Genome mapping and use of molecular markers in plant breeding – Strategies for mapping genes of agronomic traits in plants- Approaches for mapping quantitative trait loci- Map based cloning of plant genes.

UNIT-III

Functional genomics- Regulation of Plant gene expression – Expression Analysis using Microarrays – Transposon tagging and Insertional mutagenesis- methods and significance- Diversity Array Technology

UNIT-IV

Genome sequencing in plants–Principles and Techniques; Applications of sequence information in plant genome analyses - Comparative genomics–Genome Comparison Techniques: Classical and advanced approaches.

UNIT-V

Detection of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism–TILLING and Eco-TILLING – Role of tranblockedomics, proteomics and metabolomics in linking genome and phenomeImportance of understanding the phenotypes for exploiting the outcome of genomic technologies- Knock out studies and high throughput phenotyping.

UNIT-VI

Concept of database development, management and bioinformatics Plant genome projects and application of bioinformatics tools in structural and functional genomics.

GP 605 2+0 PLANT GENETIC RESOURCES AND PRE-BREEDING SEM-I

UNIT-I

Historical perspectives and need for PGR conservation, importance of plant genetic resources, taxonomical classification of cultivated plants, Gene pool: primary, secondary and tertiary; Centres of origin and global pattern of diversity; basic genetic resources and transgenes

UNIT-II

Principles, strategies and practices of exploration, collection, characterization, evaluation and cataloging of PGR; Plant quarantine and phytosanitary certification; Germplasm, introduction and exchange; principles of in vitroand cryopreservation

UNIT-III

Germplasm conservation- in situ, ex situ, and on-farm; short, medium and long term conservation strategies for conservation of orthodox seed and vegetatively propagated crops; registration of plant genetic resources.

UNIT-IV

PGR data base management, multivariate and clustering analysis, deblockedion, national and international protocols for PGR management, PGR for food and agriculture (PGRFA), PGR access and benefit sharing. Role of CGIR system in the germplasm exchange; PBR, Farmers rights and privileges. Seed act, sui generis system; geographical indicators, Intellectual property; patents, copyrights, trademarks and trade secrets.

UNIT-V

Journey from wild to domesticate; Genetic enhancement; need for genetic enhancement. Genetic enhancement in pre era and 21st century; Genetic enhancement and plant breeding; reasons for failure in genetic enhancement; Sources of genes/ traits- novel genes for quality.

UNIT-VI

Distant Hybridization: Inter-specific, inter-generic hybridization, scope and limitations, techniques to overcome the limitations; Gene transfer tools and techniques into cultivated species; Validation of transferred genes and their expression.

UNIT-VII

Post-genomic tools for genetic enhancement of germplasm; prebreeding through chromosome manipulation-Application of biotechnology for Genetic enhancement-Achievements. UNIT-VIII: Utilization of genetic resources, concept of core and mini-core collections, genetic enchancement/Prebreeding for crop improvement including hybrid development.

GP 606 2+0 ADVANCES IN PLANT BREEDING SYSTEMS SEM-II

UNIT-I

Facts about plant breeding before the discovery of Mendelism; evolutionary concepts of genetics and plant breeding - Flower development and its importance- genes governing the whorls formation and various models proposed - Mating systems and their exploitation in crop breeding; Types of pollination - Mechanisms promoting cross pollination

UNIT-II

Self-incompatability and sterility– Types of self incompatability: Homomorphic

The section has developed comprehensive practical manuals on plant breeding and tissue culture techniques.
  • The section has received international projects and students from Germany and Switzerland. The section has also received equipments as gifts from Germany and ICRISAT.
  • The students allotted to supervisors in this section have done good research work under Sandwich Model of DAAD, Germany and collaborative research at ICRISAT, Hyderabad.

# Image Name Designation Specialization Details
1 Dr.M.S. Punia Professor Plant Breeding, Genetics, Biotechnology & Biofuels Details
2 Dr. Ravika Assistant Scientist Gentics and Plant Breeding Details
3 Mukesh Kumar Assistant Professor Genetics and Plant Biotechnology Details
4 Dr. Shashi Madan Principal Scientist Plant Biochemistry Details